Chapter 5: Specification of Voltages and Currents in New Substations ( on line video)

This is Chapter 5 - "Specification of voltages and currents in new substations". This chapter is part of the complete training " “Design Concepts for Switchgear, Switchboards, BusDucts, and Substations"

Summary of the video

We start presenting the fundamentals and applications of load flow studies and short circuit studies. When planning a new substation to be inserted in the context of other neighbors’ substations of the power system, load flow studies are prepared to define the values of the rated currents and rated voltages which will be used in the specification of the several types of equipment. In the same approach, short circuit studies are prepared to define the values of short circuit currents and its duration as well as other paraments like the transient recovery voltages to be supported by circuit breakers

We show how the values obtained in these studies are added to the experience of the planners of the power utility to define future values.

The accuracy of these studies and the philosophy followed to use its values will define if the future substation may be a “low cost “project or not.

Simple examples of selection of the rated normal and rated short circuit values are shown. In the studies of short circuit, the examples use the free ATP / ATPDraw software. This is a powerful free tool used for decades all over the World. To know how to use it is a must for electrical engineers.

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Cognitor Consultancy, R&D , Training (by Sergio Feitoza)
3 Hotmarter Years

Sergio Feitoza created COGNITOR Consultancy, R&D and Training in 1996. Applies training and consulting on design, specification and testing of equipment for substations (switchgear, cubicles, bus ducts, busbar systems, circuit breakers, disconnectors and others).

He is an electrical engineer, M.Sc. in Power Systems and Director of Cognitor.

He has 40+ years of experience in testing laboratories (design, construction, operation as a test engineer and general manager), design of substation equipment, testing and preparation of IEC standards participating actively in several IEC and CIGRÈ working groups.

His experience covers testing laboratories (high power, high voltage, temperature rise, EMC and Ex equipment). Sergio is, possibly nowadays the only active consultant who accumulates the experience of 25 years in real laboratories plus 20 years of use of simulations of these same tests and acts in the IEC writing the technical standards of these tests.

He chaired the IEC Technical Committee TC32 and co-authored standards such as IEC 60282-2 and IEC 62271-307 as well as the CIGRÈ brochures 602 and 740. He is the author of the software SwitchgearDesign (design of substation equipment and test simulations) and DECIDIX for the analysis of the feasibility of energy projects (solar, wind, biomass, small to big hydro plants and nonrenewable). Training and consultancies are applied in all continents in English, Portuguese and Spanish. See the detailed curriculum at

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